The biological control of corn pests and diseases is very important, since we are talking about a very old plant which has been cultivated for approximately 10,000 years around the world. Its magnitude is so immense that it is the cereal with the largest production volume in the world, surpassing such basic products as wheat and rice. Thanks to this enormous production, there are a large number of pests and diseases that have adapted to this plant. The most common are described below.
Índice de contenido
- 1 Gray worm
- 2 Corn drill
- 3 Corn aphid
- 4 Red spider
- 5 Mice and rats
- 6 Corn rust
- 7 Coal spike
- 8 Mosaic virus
Normally you talk about gray worm to what are actually butterfly larvae of different species. These have a large size, generally about 5 cm, which curl up on themselves when the least danger is perceived. The duration of the life cycle is normally 35 to 60 days, the larvae can damage the plant considerably by cutting down young plants. One larva can cut down several plants in a single night.
The best known and fastest natural enemy for the control of butterflies and moths is Bacillus, it is a bacterium which is marketed as a biological insecticide, you can get it in a garden store, although with different trade names.
Apart from the previous method you can use the zinzibero which you can do very easily at home and is organic.
50 gr of powdered ginger
1 liter and a half of water
6 grams of soy lecithin, can be granulated or in tablets
- First you must boil the liter and a half of water adding a rosemary leaf
- After it is already boiling, you must let it rest for 5 minutes to add the ginger powder, make sure there are no lumps in the mixture
- Cover the mixture very well and let it rest for 24 hours.
- Add the soy lecithin after 24 hours and mix very well
- Finally you must strain it and combine the mixture with the water that you are going to spray the plants, apply this mixture 1 time every 7 days, ready you already have a natural pesticide
This is a moth caterpillar which embeds itself in the stem of the plant and in your ears, devouring everything from the inside. One of the first signs of a corn borer attack is lines of horizontal holes in young leaves, caused by feeding larvae. Later, droppings and holes are clearly visible on the stalks or on the apical part of the corn cob. The galleries made by the larvae weaken the cobs and cause them to break when it is windy.
To control this type of pest we recommend using its natural predators such as:
- Orius indicaso-Chinch
- Green lacewings- Insects
- Ladybugs- Ladybugs
This type of insect sits on top of the leaves and spikes of your plant, from which it absorbs all the nutrients it needs. If you have a large number of aphids, they can affect the production of the plant. The time when aphids are most evident is in the warm months, since this is where they reproduce the most because they are in a comfortable environment for them thanks to the temperature.
- 1 liter of still or rain water
- 100 grams of garlic
Preparation and use
- Chop the 100 grams of garlic into small parts.
- In a pot we put our garlic with peel and add the liter of water.
- Leave everything covered for 24 hours.
- After 24 hours have passed, boil the garlic with the water.
- Once the water is boiling, let it cool for about an hour.
- You must strain and it is ready to apply directly to your crops. Try not to combine it but apply it pure.
The famous red spider mite is one of the pests that most affects a large number of crops and ornamental plants. It is very easy to identify it due to its striking reddish color and the fabric it makes on the back of the leaves. You can combat it by increasing the humidity in the leaves of your crops or you can apply sulfur, neem oil or paraffin oil.
A very organic and easy method to do is through ivy extract
- You must cut the ivy, approximately 1 kilo of ivy leaves or the amount you need, try that the stems are not so thick
- Cut the branches and leaves in a way that they are in very small pieces, this can be done by emptying the branches in a bucket (plastic) and with hedge shears
- Add 10 liters of rainwater or if by chance you do not have rainwater and you are going to use another type of water, let it rest for 24 hours
- Stir everything with anything you have on hand but that is not metal, you should do this process 5 minutes a day for approximately 2 weeks, which helps you to oxygenate the mixture every day. (You must cover it after stirring)
- Your product is ready when when stirring you see that bubbles are not made as if from fermentation but rather they are made by the exercise of solving, calm down I know that you will notice the difference between these 2 bubbles!
- Once ready, you filter it into a second container, be very careful as the liquid can be toxic so you cannot ingest it, once this step is done, it is ready to use, another recommendation for you is not to use it in a concentrated way, since it is very strong, for a liter of the extract use 3 liters of water.
- Finally you can store the extract for approximately 9 months, you have no problem as long as you leave it in a dark place out of the sun and in a well sealed container.
Mice and rats
Depending on the location of your crop, these little animals, which you know very well, can almost always appear madly attracted to your corn plants. Resorting to specialized chemical products is the most expensive and least ecological way you can use, so what we recommend is that you use natural products that keep them away and have a good biological control of corn pests and diseases.
spurge extract. The tender shoots of this plant must be left to macerate for more than a week in water, this will produce a mixture whose bad smell will keep these animals far away.
This, among all corn diseases, is the most common and widespread throughout almost the entire world. It can be seen in the leaves, which let you see yellow spots on both sides, and end up turning red and black, in the shape of a pinhead; leaves that are younger are more susceptible to this disease, the spread of this disease can be devastating to your plants or your pocketbook.
You must apply an aqueous extract of the guaco plant, Mikania glomerata, for this you must:
- Mix the guaco with distilled or rain water.
- Let it rest for 24 hours in the refrigerator.
- Filter your mixture into a new container.
- Reduce or mix with rainwater and voila you have a very easy and ecological way to control corn rust.
This is a fungus that enters the corn plant and does its damage systemically. It is very difficult to detect this type of fungus with the naked eye, it is only possible to locate it until the plant grows and its spikes shine, which appear black and very deformed, frequent watering during the first 20 days after planting the corn can reduce infection by this fungus. The spread of this disease occurs through wind, water, animals, people, agricultural machinery, contaminated seeds, among others.
For this type of fungus, having control is quite complicated because such a fungus can last 5 years in the soil, so the main thing is that you rotate crops as soon as the harvest is over, another thing you can do is cover the spikes and ears that are infected with a black plastic bag to prevent the spread of the fungus, then, you must cut them and bury them at a depth of one meter inside a land that you do not use for agricultural purposes.
This virus appears by placing the yellow leaves on the corn, leaving their nerves visible to the naked eye and reducing the growth of the plant. You well know that viruses cannot be treated in a simple way once they have appeared, the best possible recommendation is that you choose varieties of corn resistant to these viruses and uproot the affected plants, always covering them in black bags to prevent the spread of the virus. viruses to other plants.
If you want to know more information related to the biological control of pests in blackberries, you can click here.